Thursday, August 15, 2019

Kangkareng Sulawesi (Penelopides Exarhatus)

Kangkareng Sulawesi (Penelopides Exarhatus)

This kangkareng family is a type of bird that is classified as vulnerable (VU; vulnerable) based on the IUCN red list and Appendix II according to CITES. Its protection is regulated in Law No. 5/1990, PP No. 7/1999 and PermenLHK RI No. P.20 / Menlhk / Setjen / Kum.1 / 6/2018 concerning Types of Plants and Animals Protected.


Sulawesi Kangkareng is a species of bird that is popular with local people. They usually inhabit primary forests, forest edges, swamp forests and high secondary forests; from sea level to a height of about 700 m. This endemic bird occupies the island of Sulawesi and is divided into two subspecies. The distribution includes: R. e. exarhatus is in North Sulawesi, North Sulawesi south to Kulawi and Lake Lindu and Lembeh Island, then R. e. Sanfordi is in South Sulawesi, Muna Island, Buton Island and the southern part of Togean Island


Because it is small ± 53 cm in size, the Sulawesi Kangkareng is often referred to as the Dwarf Kangkareng. His body is black, while his tail and back meet green. In male individuals, the face and throat are yellow, whereas in female individuals, the face and throat are black.

Of the two Sulawesi Kangkareng subspecies, each has its own characteristics. R. e. exarhatus: male lower jaw has black stripes and R. e. sanfordi: the lower jaw of the male is black in color


85% of the main food of Sulawesi Kangkareng is fruit and the rest are small animals, especially invertebrates; non-vertebrate animals. These birds also often find food in the middle of the canopy of fruiting trees. During their search, they usually group up to dozens of individuals, then perch on a banyan tree species (Ficus spp).


Sulawesi Kangkareng often live in small groups of 2-10 individuals (average 4), whose role is to protect the group's territory and help one another in its breeding process. Even in this group, more than one couple can be found breeding.

Breeding season starts in March-April. Females will enclose themselves in tree holes to incubate eggs. The male couple is in charge of providing food, both for the mother and her children. The number of eggs is usually 2-3 eggs.


The decline in the population of Kangkareng Sulawesi is caused by habitat destruction, forest fires, hunting, and gold mining. Moreover, forests in Sulawesi have lost 16.9% in ten years during the 1985-1997 period and 36.1% in 1997-2001.

In 1978-1979, the population of Sulawesi Kangkareng experienced a decline due to outbreaks of disease transmitted by domestic poultry.


Although small in size, the range of Sulawesi Kangkareng can reach 100 km2.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Rangkong Gading (Rhinoplax Vigil)

Rangkong Gading (Rhinoplax Vigil)

At the end of 2015, IUCN had upgraded the Hornbill's status from Near Threatened to Critically Endangered, another step towards extinction. Meanwhile, the Convention on Endangered Species Trade (CITES), has recorded this bird in the Appendix I list, or is threatened from all forms of trade.


Although easily recognizable, but very rarely encountered. The Hornbill of Ivory inhabits dense tropical forest with large and tall trees in lowland forest and forest beneath the mountains to an altitude of 1500 meters above sea level. It can be found in the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Thailand and small populations in Myanmar.

Indonesia has the widest habitat of hornbill. However, only large natural perforated trees with distinctive humps in front of them can be used for nesting. The weevil is used as a platform when perched, to feed the mother and child in the nest. This unique nest model is not found in other types of hornbills.


Hornbill Ivory, a very large bird with elongated middle tail feathers. From the end of the beak to the tip of the tail, the length reaches 190 cm with a wingspan of 90 cm and a body weight of 3 kg. With a characteristic that is skin neck without hairs red in males and bluish white in females. Then it has a symmetrical and tapered beak at the edges. The horn or casque at the top of its beak is densely filled, weighing up to 13% of its body weight. Based on observations in the field, the horn is used in fights that often occur near banyan trees that are bearing fruit. Even his voice sounded like someone was laughing so hard and could be heard from a distance of two kilometers.


The main food of Rangkong Gading is very specific, in the form of a large banyan / fig (Ficus sp.) Fruit. Only undamaged forests can provide this large amount of feed throughout the year. Other foods in the form of small animals only consume about 2% of the overall food composition.


Like all hornbills, Ivory Hornbills only have one partner during their lifetime (monogamy). After finding the right nest hole, the female will enter and lock herself up. It takes around 180 days for hornbills to produce one child. Together with male hornbill, the nest hole will be closed using a mixture of clay dung spiked with dirt. A narrow gap is left in the manhole cover to take food from the male, and also to maintain temperature and cleanliness in the nest.

In the nest, the female will shed a portion of her flying feathers (moulting) to make a base to maintain the warmth of the egg. Female birds will not be able to fly and depend entirely on the male, until the child comes out of the nest. The stage of laying, incubating, hatching, until the child is ready to come out of the nest takes six months.


The loss of forests as the main habitat, the lack of conservation efforts, and the rise of hunting is a terrible mix for the future of Hornbills. Various types of banyan trees that provide the main food for the Hornbill Ivory are considered to have no economic value so that its existence is never expected.

Since the 17th century Ming Dynasty, Chinese aristocrats have been eyeing the horn or casket of the Hornbill Hornbill to be made into various forms of decoration. The Indonesian Hornbills investigation and the Titian Foundation, supported by the Chester Zoo Conservation Fund, recorded that in 2013 around 6,000 adult hornbills were killed in West Kalimantan for their heads. Furthermore, throughout 2015 there were 2,343 half-horns of Hornbill Ivory successfully confiscated from illicit trade. The biggest demand for the hunt for the Hornbill Hornet hunt comes from China.


Bird species are protected according to Law No. 5 Th 1990 concerning Conservation of Biological Natural Resources and their Ecosystems and has been recorded in the attachment list of species of wild animals and plants protected in Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia Number 7 of 1999. Also based on Minister of Forestry Regulation Number: P.57 / Menhut-II / 2008 regarding the Strategic Direction of National Species Conservation 2008-2018 including Ivory Hornbills as a priority type within the hornbill group.

In the Kalimantan culture, Hornbill Ivory is a symbol of "Above Nature", which is a masculine nature of maturity. The hornbill is believed by the Dayak community as a symbol of courage, protection and a bridge between ancestral spirits and the Dayak community.

In the southernmost province of Sumatra, Rangkong Gading has a cultural value that symbolizes greatness and leadership for the indigenous people of Lampung Province.

The farmer True Forest

hornbill (rangkong)
Hornbills are reliable seed dispersers. To live, he eats forest fruits in large quantities every day. In addition, hornbills are able to fly with a broad cruising range.

If a hornbill can split just one seed a day, imagine if in one year? This makes the hornbill play the role of a true forest farmer, being able to scatter seeds to ensure natural forest regeneration is maintained. Without hornbills, forests cannot flourish.

About Hornbills

Hornbills are one type of large beak that has unique characteristics. Of the total 32 types of hornbills in Asia, almost half are in Indonesia; three types of which are endemic. For this reason, Indonesia has become the most important country in protecting hornbill populations in Asia

Spread out

62 hornbills in the world are spread from Africa (30 species) to Asia (32 species). The most hornbill distribution in Indonesia is on the island of Sumatra with nine species ranked first, eight species on the island of Borneo and three types on the island of Java. Meanwhile, the Wallacea Region and Papua have four types of hornbills; three of them are endemic species, namely Sumba (Rhyticeros everetti), Sulawesi crab (Rhyticeros cassidix) and Sulawesi Kangkareng (Rhabdotorrhinus exarhatus).

Hornbills in Indonesia

In addition to meritorious for forest preservation, Hornbills also have a unique sound, physical, and breeding pattern. Each type of Hornbill also gives a variety of meanings to humans. That is why in some regions, Hornbills are an inseparable part of people's lives. Let's explore the uniqueness of 13 types of hornbills in Indonesia in the next post.


Mandalika is a tourist area of ​​1,035 hectares located in Central Lombok Regency, West Nusa Tenggara. Since 2017, Mandalika has been inaugurated as a Special Economic Zone (KEK) tourism which is expected to be a fairly representative vacation spot in Lombok because it is equipped with several hotels and various recreational facilities. Mandalika, currently, has 7 natural tourism spots that fascinate tourists.

1. Kuta beach

First known from the Mandalika area was Kuta Beach, Lombok at the western end of Mandalika. Its name is often compared to Kuta Beach in Bali. Kuta Beach Lombok is more beautiful than the one in Bali, cleaner and quieter. Kuta Beach area is now the most potential to develop compared to other spots in Mandalika. The facilities are quite complete, especially not far from the Great Mosque of Nurul Bilad which was recently inaugurated by President Jokowi. This place will also be built on the Mandalika street circuit for MotoGP 2020.

2. Seger Beach

Next to the timir Kuta Beach there is Seger Beach with a shape like a cape. Seger Beach follows the popularity of Kuta Beach because it has an annual event, the Bau Nyale Festival which takes place in the Seger Beach area. Residents meet Seger Beach to look for the incarnation of Putri Nyale, once a year. On this beach there is a Putri Nyale monument that adds to the beautiful decoration.
Sereting Beach

3. Serenting
Beach is located east of Seger Beach. The coastline is longer than Seger Beach. Serenting Beach is also the entry area for the Bau Nyale Festival. If Seger Beach is too full of residents and tourists during the Bau Nyale Festival, they will overflow to Serenting Beach. Serenting Beach is no less beautiful.

4. Merese Hill

Merese Hill is the best spot to enjoy views of Mandalika from a height. Merese Hill is between Serenting Beach and Tanjung Aan Beach. The trip up the hill is also exciting and enough to burn calories. With a large area, many choices of places and backgrounds to take pictures on this hill. Visitors can look towards Tanjung Aan or to Serenting Beach, all are equally beautiful.

5. Tanjung Aan Beach

To the east of Merese Hill is Tanjung Aan Beach. White sand stretches across a coastline that is curved like this crescent moon. Tanjung Aan Beach is a favorite place for tourists because it is quieter than Kuta Beach, but the view is more beautiful. Swing by the sea is a favorite for photos of tourists.

6. Umbrella Stone

At the east end of Tanjung Aan Beach there is a unique natural phenomenon called Batu Payung. These are corals formed naturally by erosion, scours of sea water and thousands of years of wind that form similar coral formations such as fungi or bud buds. From there was born the name Batu Payung.

7. Gerupuk Beach

At the easternmost tip of Mandalika is Gerupuk Beach which is the best surfing spot in Mandalika. At Gerupuk Beach there are several surf camps for tourists who want a vacation while trying the waves with varying wave levels.

Padar Island

Padar Island

Padar is a small island located between Komodo and Rinca islands within Komodo archipelago, administrated under the West Manggarai Regency, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia.It is the third largest island part of Komodo National Park.
The Komodo archipelago is famous for Komodo dragons, giant lizards that can measure up to 3 metres (9.8 ft) long. However, unlike neighboring islands of Komodo and Rinca that are teeming with the ferocious lizards, on Padar island the Komodo dragon is extinct.
The topography of the island is rugged, with steep volcanic mountains and hills set against deep bays. Padar has a dry climate, with only bushes and grassland vegetation covering the island, creating savanna hills. Padar island has four deep bays with beaches in different colors, most of them are white sands, while some beaches have grey and pink sands. The sea surrounding the island has several sites popular for scuba diving and snorkelling.

Friday, January 30, 2015

Talise beach, palu

talise beach at night
Talise beach stretches on Jl. Rajamoili and Jl. Cut Mutia Palu, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Talise beach is one of mainstay attractions the city of Palu, Central Sulawesi. The beach is located at the end of Palu Bay stretches from Palu to Donggala. From the location of this tourist stretch of the bay and the mountains look so beautiful and fascinating. Its presence near the city of Palu to make this beach often visited by tourists from outside the city of Palu and society itself.
In the evening, they came to this beach to watch the seconds sunset (sunset). While at night, they came to enjoy a variety of types of food sold along the coast. Similarly, on every Sunday morning, hundreds of visitors thronged the beach to enjoy the warm sea water and see the beauty of coral reefs and fish under the sea.

Aside from being a tourist, Talise beach is also a source of livelihood for the fisherfolk who lived around the coast. Fishing boats are moored in the bay add to the beauty of the beaches, especially at night. The lights of fishing boats are visible flickering in the dark of night.

Talise beach has many privileges. In addition to having beautiful natural scenery, the beach is perfect for sports activities, such as: swimming, wind surfing (wind surfing), water sky, diving, fishing, and so forth. Toward the afternoon, there were sights to be missed, namely the moments of a sunset (sunset) between Mount Gawalise located not far from the beach Talise. Similarly, at night, looking incredibly amazing. Visitors can witness the beauty of the lights of fishing boats moving in the middle of the bay by the ocean waves crashing, while enjoying traditional food and drink community Palu, such as sarabba (ginger ale mixed with coconut milk, brown sugar and milk), banana epek (grilled banana flavored cheese or brown sugar), fried bananas, and corn on the cob smeared with butter.

In addition, visitors can witness the beauty of IV yellow Palu Bridge stretching over the river upstream of Palu, not far from the beach Talise. Bridges are often inviting admiration for its beauty was inaugurated by the President of the Republic of Indonesia, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono in May 2007.

If visitors want to find another atmosphere, not far from Talise beach, about 3 km to the west, there are attractions that are not less interesting, namely Coastal Park Ria. In Ria Park, visitors can enjoy the beauty of its surroundings and enjoy a variety of typical foods served at Palu food stalls or in restaurants, such as kaledo (beef bone soup) are eaten with cassava or rice, uvempoi (sour soup of cow bones ) are eaten with burasa (coconut milk rice wrapped in banana leaves), and uta chest (sort of chicken opor).

Therefore, this beach is located in the center of the city of Palu, the visitor will have no trouble getting a place to stay. About 1 kilometer from the site, there are a number of hotels and guest house to rest. In addition, on-site cafe grobak also available that provide a variety of traditional foods and beverages Palu community.

Access to Talise beach is very easy, because it is located in the center of Palu. Airport Palu to the location, visitors can use the four-wheeled vehicles and two-wheeler with a distance of about 4 kilometers.